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Texas Workers’ Compensation Subrogation Dealt Blow

Texas Workers Compensation

Texas Workers CompensationOn January 11, 2019, the Texas Courtroom of Appeals issued an opinion which could have a profound impact on staff’ compensation subrogation in Texas. In New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm v. Rodriguez, 2019 WL 168482 (Tex. App. 2019), the courtroom introduced for the primary time that a staff’ compensation lien could be lowered and even eradicated by the share an employer’s fault bears to the entire restoration or judgment in a case, even when the third-party go well with or declare is introduced by the worker and the service is just in search of reimbursement beneath § 417.001(b). This discount might probably apply despite the fact that the judgment just isn’t decreased as a result of employer fault. The choice is much more harmful for an unsuspecting service as a result of it says that the service could also be collaterally estopped by a Staff’ Compensation Division ruling on compensability, lengthy earlier than the third-party legal responsibility points come up. Not solely does this ruling run opposite to the clear language of the statutes, it opens the door for plaintiff’s attorneys in Texas to argue that your “lien” can now be eradicated based mostly on employer negligence. Till now, alleged employer negligence hasn’t been a think about negotiating staff’ compensation liens within the Lone Star State.


On September 1, 2007, Rodriguez was a basic laborer assigned by momentary employment company R.M. Personnel, Inc. to work on the Florence Road Venture in El Paso, Texas, beneath the supervision of Perspectiva, the undertaking architect and basic contractor. Perspectiva sub-contracted drywall to Sunsets West, Inc. (SWI). SWI left a gap in a deck over the elevator shaft and a Perspectiva supervisor positioned plastic over the opening to maintain rain out. Rodriguez fell via the opening and down 30 ft, struggling catastrophic and everlasting accidents.

R.M. Personnel’s staff’ compensation service was Liberty Mutual and Perspectiva’s staff’ compensation service was New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm (AIG). Liberty Mutual started paying advantages, however a dispute between the 2 carriers arose over who was to pay advantages. The Texas Division of Insurance coverage Staff’ Compensation Division decided that as a result of Perspectiva managed the small print of Rodriguez’s work whereas he was on the job website, Perspectiva and never R.M. Personnel was Rodriguez’s employer beneath the Act. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm took over paying staff’ compensation advantages and its lien on the time of trial was roughly $2 million, together with a big publicity to future advantages because of the seriousness of the accidents sustained by Rodriguez.

Third-Social gathering Lawsuit and Trial

On December four, 2007, Liberty Mutual filed a subrogation go well with towards Perspectiva, and later added SWI. On September 16, 2009, Rodriguez filed a separate lawsuit towards Perspectiva, R.M. Personnel, and SWI, and it was consolidated with the subrogation go well with and Liberty Mutual later non-suited its go well with. R.M. Personnel moved for Abstract Judgment arguing it was immune as a result of it was the “employer.” R.M. Personnel argued that each it and Perspectiva have been Rodriguez’s “employer”, and since R.M. Personnel was a subscriber to staff’ compensation insurance coverage, it, like Perspectiva, ought to be immune from go well with. Rodriguez, SWI, and New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm all filed responses to the Movement, arguing that R.M. Personnel was estopped from arguing unique treatment because of the Division’s order. The movement was denied.

At trial, Rodriguez confronted three events: (1) Intervenor New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm, (2) R.M. Personnel, and (three) SWI. Jury discovered $20.5 million in damages and apportioned 61% of the fault to Perspectiva, the employer. Rodriguez recovered $6,166,222.72 and the trial courtroom ordered that New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm obtain no reimbursement because of Perspectiva’s negligence however did grant it a future credit score for $four,066,648.67. Nevertheless, the trial courtroom held the credit score might solely be utilized after New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm paid Rodriguez $11,542.588.75 in complete advantages. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm, R.M. Personnel, and SWI appealed.


On attraction, the Courtroom of Appeals made a number of vital rulings affecting Texas staff’ compensation subrogation which have been issues of first impression:

  1. The order of the Division, which ordered New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm to pay advantages and mistakenly believed there could possibly be just one employer in worker leasing conditions, was collateral estoppel to unique treatment safety for R.M. Personnel.
  2. New Hampshire’s reimbursement declare offset (e., eradicated) by the 61% fault discovered on the employer, Perspectiva, although the trial courtroom by no means “reduced” the judgment based mostly on this fault. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm’s “lien” and reimbursement rights have been lowered by the greenback quantity the jury attributed to Perspectiva’s negligence – 61% of the $20.5 million, or $12,505,000.
  3. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm’s reimbursement rights have been offset by employer negligence despite the fact that the third-party go well with was introduced by the worker underneath 417.002 and New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm was merely asserting a lien and a proper of reimbursement moderately than submitting go well with and subrogating underneath § 417.001(b).
  4. The discount for employer negligence was not 61% of the subrogation curiosity, as New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm alternatively argued, however 100% of the subrogation curiosity.
  5. The longer term credit score was utilized mistaken by the trial courtroom. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm was entitled to an instantaneous future credit score for $four,066,649.97 – the “net recovery” by Rodriguez after the $6,166,222.72 award was lowered by charges and The trial courtroom erred in holding that New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm needed to wait till hundreds of thousands extra in advantages have been paid earlier than claiming the credit score.
  6. The Staff’ Compensation Division – in an administrative case involving R.M. Personnel’s insurance coverage service (Liberty Mutual) and Perspectiva’s insurance coverage service (New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm) – decided that Perspectiva was Rodriguez’s employer and that R.M. Personnel was not Rodriguez’s employer. This was collateral estoppel and R.M. Personnel can’t assert the unique treatment protection.


The Courtroom of Appeals introduced that the § 417.001(b) subrogation discount provision (as a consequence of employer negligence) applies not solely in employer/carrier-initiated litigation (subrogation), but in addition when the service is merely asserting a lien (reimbursement) beneath § 417.002 – a separate statute that makes no reference to discount of a lien based mostly on employer fault. The choice by the Courtroom of Appeals is a valiant effort that will get it mistaken on a number of counts. The courtroom ignores the plain language of two of the first statutes in Texas which concern themselves with staff’ compensation subrogation.

It could possibly be argued that § 417.001 establishes the service’s subrogation rights which permits it to file a third-party motion and prosecute the legal responsibility of the tortfeasor by itself, and § 417.002 offers with reimbursement of the service’s lien when, as on this case, the third-party motion is filed and pursued by the worker. Nevertheless, the Texas Supreme Courtroom didn’t acknowledge (or reject) such a distinction within the majority opinion of its newest foray into employee’s compensation subrogation contained in Wausau Underwriters Ins. Co. v. Wedel, 557 S.W.3d 554, 558-59 (Tex. 2018). The 2 subrogation statutes at play are:

  • § 417.001. Third-Get together Legal responsibility

(a) An worker or authorized beneficiary might search damages from a 3rd social gathering who’s or turns into liable to pay damages for an damage or dying that’s compensable underneath this subtitle and can also pursue a declare for staff’ compensation advantages beneath this subtitle.

(b) If a profit is claimed by an injured worker or a authorized beneficiary of the worker, the insurance coverage service is subrogated to the rights of the injured worker and should implement the legal responsibility of the third celebration within the identify of the injured worker or the authorized beneficiary. The insurance coverage service’s subrogation curiosity is restricted to the quantity of the whole advantages paid or assumed by the service to the worker or the authorized beneficiary, much less the quantity by which the courtroom reduces the judgment based mostly on the share of duty decided by the trier of reality underneath Part 33.003, Civil Apply and Cures Code, attributable to the employer. If the restoration is for an quantity larger than the quantity of the insurance coverage service’s subrogation curiosity, the insurance coverage service shall:

(1) reimburse itself and pay the prices from the quantity recovered; and

(2) pay the rest of the quantity recovered to the injured worker or the authorized beneficiary. [Emphasis added].

  • § 417.002. Restoration in Third-Get together Motion

(a) The web quantity recovered by a claimant in a third-party motion shall be used to reimburse the insurance coverage service for advantages, together with medical advantages, which were paid for the compensable damage.

(b) Any quantity recovered that exceeds the quantity of the reimbursement required beneath Subsection (a) shall be handled as an advance towards future advantages, together with medical advantages, that the claimant is entitled to obtain underneath this subtitle.

(c) If the advance beneath Subsection (b) is sufficient to cowl all future advantages, the insurance coverage service shouldn’t be required to renew the cost of advantages. If the advance is inadequate, the insurance coverage service shall resume the cost of advantages when the advance is exhausted.

The query on attraction was one in every of first impression: Whether or not the 2003 statutory modification decreasing the carriers’ subrogation curiosity relying on the employer’s negligence (61%) modifications “well-settled” regulation on the service’s reimbursement rights as properly? New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm argued that the statutory discount underneath § 417.001(b) shouldn’t have utilized as a result of (1) this can be a § 417.002 reimbursement declare the place the worker sued, and (2) the judgment was not decreased by the trial courtroom.

New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm argued that the one time the employer’s negligence can scale back a judgment because of the “claimant’s” negligence is when a self-insured employer brings a third-party go well with and is discovered contributorily negligent. The courtroom disagreed, rationalizing that § 417.001(b) is “redirected” towards § 33.003, which offers with the jury’s evaluation of proportionate duty of not solely claimant/plaintiffs, but in addition amongst defendants, settling individuals, and accountable third events designated beneath § 33.004. The courtroom additionally stated this discount provision isn’t restricted solely to these conditions through which the employer is a claimant; it applies each time a jury passes on the query of the employer’s legal responsibility no matter which position the employer is forged in a lawsuit, be it claimant, defendant, settling social gathering, or as on this case, a accountable third social gathering. The 2003 amendments meant that regardless that the subscribing employer remained immune from go well with, the employer’s negligence might for the primary time be positioned at concern earlier than a jury and thereby (1) proportionally scale back an worker’s restoration, and (2) permit different events’ negligence to be seen in context of all potential negligence at giant. The courtroom additionally held that the Legislature amended § 417.001(b) to incorporate the subrogation limitation cross-referencing the newly-updated proportionate duty provisions at § 33.zero12(a), thereby framing the subrogation curiosity discount when it comes to the employer’s proportionate duty. In change for permitting immunized employers to be designated as accountable third events, one commentator surmised that “legislators provided that the worker’s compensation carrier’s subrogated lien will be reduced in accordance with the percentage of fault attributed by the trier of fact to the employer.” The courtroom dominated that the set-off applies every time a jury passes on the share of employer fault.

The courtroom additionally stated that § 417.001 is just not triggered solely when a service information a third-party motion. It says that “if a benefit is claimed by an injured employee” the service is subrogated to the rights of the injured worker and the 2 statutes are linked. Right here the courtroom misses the essential distinction between subrogation and reimbursement and seems to incorrectly conflate the 2. It incorrectly determines that § 417.001(b) “defines the scope of the carrier’s subrogation interest.” That is evident from the truth that § 417.001(b)(2) says that when there’s a restoration (clearly, a restoration by the service), it should “pay the remainder of the amount recovered to the injured employee or the legal beneficiary.” The courtroom magically “links” the 2 statutes with no foundation for doing so aside from it permits the choice to make sense. Within the portion of its determination discussing the longer term credit score, it all of a sudden begins referring to the service’s “subrogation/reimbursement” proper. It pulls from waiver of subrogation instances (Wausau Underwriters Ins. Co. v. Wedel, 557 S.W.3d 554 (Tex. 2018)) in saying that “an insurance carrier’s right of subrogation encompasses the right of reimbursement.” This was a simple conflation to make when figuring out the extent and impact of a waiver of subrogation endorsement, however has little place within the mixing of two statutes which clearly have totally different functions, intents, and circumstances hooked up to them.

New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm alternatively argued that even when the discount provision utilized, the statute requires the lien to be decreased solely by the share attributable to Perspectiva’s negligence. In different phrases, as a result of Perspectiva was discovered 61% negligent, New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm’s potential restoration can be lowered 61% and it might solely recuperate a 39% share of its lien. New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm argued that underneath the discount provision solely that exact claimant’s judgment quantity might be proportionately decreased, not the full judgment. On this case, New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm’s portion of the judgment was roughly $2 million, and New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm argued within the various that it ought to recuperate 39% of the $2 million paid. The courtroom held that the statute requires a calculation of the quantity of the discount of the entire judgment, i.e. the $20.5 million in damages sustained by Rodriguez – versus a proportionate discount – which means that New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm’s first cash lien was decreased by $12,505,000.

Part 417.001(b) says that a service’s “subrogation” curiosity is to be “less the amount by which the court reduces the judgment based on the percentage of [employer negligence].” The courtroom didn’t scale back the judgment based mostly on employer fault and, subsequently, the lien shouldn’t have been lowered. As an alternative, the trial courtroom awarded the share quantity for which SWI and R.M. Personnel have been liable.

Significance of Choice

There’s something past the numerous points described above that makes this case extraordinarily noteworthy and probably very harmful for an unsuspecting insurance coverage business. It opens the door for plaintiff’s lawyer to concoct theories of employer negligence in each case and threaten vital discount or elimination of the lien if the service doesn’t aggressively negotiate its lien. If the choice stands, Texas will be a part of the ranks of different states whose legal guidelines permit the service’s lien to be lowered when the employer is at fault. As you may think; they’ll virtually all the time be argued to be at fault.

The “collateral estoppel” facet of the case can also be troubling. Carriers subrogating in Texas should now assume three chess strikes forward when making selections relating to accepting protection because the “employer” or not, particularly in instances involving worker leasing and/or momentary employment providers. Binding a defendant in a tort case based mostly on the place taken throughout a staff’ compensation declare the place the events and pursuits aren’t all the identical appears somewhat unfair. That is very true with employer leasing corporations/momentary employment providers, and so forth. Insurance coverage corporations go to nice lengths to say “Not it!” in relation to being the “employer” in catastrophic losses, not realizing they’re now “buying into” a possible eight-figure legal responsibility as a 3rd celebration. In hindsight, and assuming there’s a reimbursement proper on the finish of the day, Liberty Mutual and New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm ought to have been doing the precise reverse on the Division – arguing that they have been each the employer. This challenge additionally drives house the excessive value of not getting subrogation counsel concerned from Day 1.

Attraction to Texas Supreme Courtroom

It’s anticipated that the case can be appealed to the Texas Supreme Courtroom. MWL has been engaged by the Nationwide Affiliation of Subrogation Professionals (NASP) to draft and file an amicus temporary in help of New Hampshire Insurance coverage Firm. How this case finally ends up is anybody’s guess.

For questions relating to Texas staff’ compensation subrogation or subrogation typically, contact Gary Wickert at [email protected]